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    injection mold/plastic part

    Tribological assessment of the interface injection mold/plastic part

    One of the current challenges of the plastic injection process is linked to the importance given to product design that enables a strong differentiation. The key in developing optimal surface molds that can overcome the present disadvantages lies in the comprehension of the interactions that occur at the mold/ injected piece interface. This paper focus on identification and evaluation of the contact conditions at that interface, taking into account the effect of the polishing, of the mold geometry and of the injected material. A critical characterization of the surface topography was performed to study the corrosionmechanical attack and the mechanical-physico-chemical one on two molds.

    CNC
     
    A real-time CNC interpolator algorithm for trimming and filling planar 
    offset curves
     
    Tool paths for CNC machines must be offset from the desired part shape, in order to compensate for the tool radius. To avoid gouging the part geometry and to ensure continuous paths, the offset construction employs trimming and filling operations at tangent discontinuities and regions of high concave curvature on the part shape. Typically, offset paths are constructed offline in a CAM system — the resulting paths are inherently approximate, and must be re-generated when a different tool size is selected. To circumvent these shortcomings, an interpolator algorithm for real-time offset curve trimming and filling is developed and verified herein. Since the algorithm uses the exact part geometry, offset path approximation errors are completely eliminated. Circular fill arcs of the appropriate angular extent are automatically executed at convex tangent-discontinuous junctures of adjacent part boundary segments, and offset trimming operations are triggered by real-time point/curve distance computations, which determine footpoints of the instantaneous tool position on the part boundary. The algorithm also accommodates feedrates that correspond to a constant speed of either the tool/part contact point, or the tool center. The practical feasibility of the method is demonstrated by an implementation on a 3-axis CNC mill governed by an open-architecture software controller.

    plastic injection molding

    Spiral and conformal cooling in plastic injection molding

    Designing cooling channels for the thermoplastic injection process is a very important step in mold design. A conformal cooling channel can significantly improve the efficiency and the quality of production in plastic injection molding. This paper introduces an approach to generate spiral channels for conformal cooling. The cooling channels designed by our algorithms has very simple connectivity and can achieve effective conformal cooling for the models with complex shapes. The axial curves of cooling channels are constructed on a free-form surface conformal to the mold surface. With the help of boundary-distance maps, algorithms are investigated to generate evenly distributed spiral curves on the surface. The cooling channels derived from these spiral curves are conformal to the plastic part and introduce nearly no reduction at the rate of coolant flow. Therefore, the channels are able to achieve uniform mold cooling. Moreover, by having simple connectivity, these spiral channels can be fabricated by copper duct bending instead of expensive selective laser sintering

    electronic components
     
    Fatigue life prediction model for accelerated testing of electronic components under non-Gaussian random vibration excitations
    In this paper, a novel fatigue life prediction model for electronic components under non-Gaussian random vibration excitations is proposed based on random vibration and fatigue theory. This mathematical model comprehensively associates the vibration fatigue life of electronic components, the characteristics of vibration excitations (such as the root mean square, power spectral density, spectral bandwidth and kurtosis value) and the dynamic transfer characteristics of an electronic assembly (such as the natural frequency and damping ratio) together. Meanwhile a detailed solving method was also presented for determining the unknown parameters in the model. To verify the model, a series of random vibration fatigue accelerated tests were conducted. The results obtained show that the predicted fatigue life based on the model agreed with actual testing. This fatigue life prediction model can be used for the quantitative design of vibration fatigue accelerated testing, which can be applied to assess the long-term fatigue reliability of electronic components under Gaussian and non-Gaussian random vibration environments.
     
    MIM
     
    Monolithic interconnected modules (MIM) for high irradiance photovoltaic
    energy conversion: A comprehensive review
    Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) are densely packed arrays of series interconnected photovoltaic (PV) cells that are manufactured on the same semiconductor substrate. This review presents the result oprospective study whose objective is to provide an overview of the historical development and current state of the art of the MIM technology. The most outstanding works from the conception of thefirst MIM devices in the late 70s to the most recent ideas to date, including all relevant milestones achieved during these four decades,are reported. This review focuses on MIM devices that are designed for high-irradiance photovoltaic (HIPV) applications, such as concentrator PV (CPV), thermophotovoltaics (TPV), and laser power conversion (LPC), in which the highly dense series interconnection is particularly relevant in order to boost the output voltage without scarifying the receptor photoactive area
                                                                                                    

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